Foto cedida por el Museo Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. "Leçon et avertissement pour l'Exposition 1937," Arts et métiers graphiques, 1936, numéro 51. "Paris Exposition," Magazine of Art, May, 1937. Military aircraft, parachuting, sport flying, and even model-airplane building – every genre of hobby, commercial, or military application – were all represented at the booths of the Palais de l'Air. Wine-Searcher is not responsible for omissions and inaccuracies. At the earlier French national fairs held in the first decades of the 19th century, the artists refused to lower themselves by appearing in the same expositions as the "lower" mechanical arts. "20 What a far cry from the heroic call for national unity in the first national expositions. Beneath the imported totem poles, between the fronds of the newly-planted banana trees, palms and cacti, the colonial artisans weaved fabrics and sang their songs on the Parisian island of outre mer. Here the French borrowed from the Chicago Columbian Exposition, which devoted a portion of the fairgrounds to the states of the union. Some enthusiasts talked of continuing the exposition into the next year; but the plan failed to win popular support. The Universal Exposition of 1889 (Exposition Universelle de 1889) was a highly successful international exhibition and one of the few world's fairs to make a profit. The Russian and German Pavilions oppose each other at the 1937 Exposition (click the image for a lightbox view), Click HERE for a 1937 video of the scene above, Expanded and revised from World's Fair magazine, Volume VIII, Number 1,1988. "17, Mural in Le Corbusier's Pavilion de l'Esprit Nouveau. Speer's pavilion was culminated by a tall tower crowned with the symbols of the Nazi state: an eagle and the swastika. Check with the merchant for stock availability. Inaugurouse o 25 de maio de 1937, da man do presidente Albert Lebrun, e pechou o 25 de … , The Spanish pavilion was arranged by the President of Spain Spanish Republican government and built by the Spanish architect Josep Lluis Sert. This return to the past by way of neoclassicism has been seen by some observers as a prime symbol of fascism in architecture. It attracted extra attention because the exposition took place during the Spanish Civil War. Clearly, the monetary goals of the exposition, taken in the larger context of the French economy, had been met. In the Regional Center, picturesquely-clad artisans from the provinces displayed their native crafts in pavilions designed as hybrids that wedded French regional traditional styles – the Norman, the Gothic, the Renaissance – with the cool lines of the international style. Exposition, Universal in 1867; Exposition; Plan of American Participation. Cinquantenaire de l'Exposition Internationale des Arts et des Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (Paris: 1987), Livre d'Or Officiel de l'Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (Paris, 1937). Martzloff, R., and Cadilhac, P.E. The wide, impersonal sweep of the colonnade conjures up for many a feeling of totalitarianism in modern guise: an updated imperial style that owes its vocabulary to the twentieth century but its imperial ambitions to Rome. Two of the other notable pavilions were those of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. 8. Each country did its best to show the world the superiority of the political and economic system that had produced the marvels on view in its national pavilions. "The old Trocadero will be mourned," remarked one French architect, "but only by those who habitually mourn the dead. By early June of 1937, the Paris Exposition was already in progress. Facing the heroically posed Russian workingman and peasant woman brandishing hammer and sickle, the German eagle, its talons clutching a wreath encircling a huge swastika, disdainfully turned its head and fanned out its wings. The Hall of Honour was the pavilion's most dramatic and evocative space. "Paris 1937: A Critique," American Architect, November, 1937. This explicit social and economic agenda marks a new stage in French thinking about her expositions. Parisian laborers in 1937 demanded a pledge from the government that if they helped build the exposition, they would be guaranteed employment thereafter. In the modern view, easel painting was elitist. The ultimate confrontation was at hand. 12 Quoted in the Architectural Record, October, 1937, page 81. It was finally decided that the world's fair would take as its theme the division that had grown up between the arts and technology. At the Regional Center of the 1937 exposition, the fundamental distinctions of prestige and power between Paris and the rest of France were made manifest. The preparation and construction of the exhibits were plagued by delay. And there were other tangible evidences of mistrust. Writers for the Parisian journals of 1937 regaled themselves with epithets for the unloved Trocadero: "a miserable amalgamation of crab, antelope, and turtle" –, "a vacuous idiot with a pair of asses ears!" – from Littlejohn's essay on the American pavilion in Cinquantenaire de l'Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (Paris, 1987), page 156. Knowledge was the hoarded property of the nation that discovered and applied it. The philosophy was as congenial to fascist Italy as to democratic France or communist Russia. Like massive abstract sculptures, radial airplane engines rested on pedestals at wide intervals throughout the main gallery. Joseph Sapey-Triomphe - Series of four framed photographs 1930, universal exhibition of 1937 in Paris - Art Deco - Glass, Paper, Wood France Series of four old photographs depicting sculptures presented at the 1937 World Expo in Paris.   Hitler had desired to withdraw from participation, but his architect Albert Speer convinced him to participate after all, showing Hitler his plans for the German pavilion. The most telling sign that art had declined into servitude was the manner in which artisanship was exalted over art, and the condescending admiration bestowed upon the artisans of colonial cultures by their rulers. The tardiness of the French workers was a major embarrassment to the French, since, by the time of the opening ceremonies, the Russian, German, Belgian, Danish and Italian pavilions were complete and ready to receive visitors. Workers are not always swayed by the fine words Peace and Progress. Des hommes exotiques dans les expositions universelles et internationales (1851-1937), in: Exhibitions. Aerial photo of the Chaillot Palace today (photo: Panoramio), As it turned out, the new Chaillot Palace was not the most the exciting architectural event at the exposition. The pavilion's interior carried out similar motifs: strict stylistic geometry, relieved by colorful, semi-abstract murals depicting the structure and power of rail transport. The main entry was through the Court of Honour that showcased life size examples of Italy's most important contribution to the history of technology. On 28 November 2009 the sculpture was completed and returned to its place in front of the VDNKh. Lemoine, Bertrand, general editor. In the spring of 1936, one of the most bitterly contested elections in the history of France gave the Communists and Socialists a dramatically increased representation in the legislature, thereby further polarizing an already deeply divided populace. Nothing in any previous universal exhibition had ever matched this dramatic architectural confrontation. The radical modernism of Le Corbusier was passed over in favor of a style which mixed traditionalism and the international style. Unfortunately, as Robichon notes, "The reconstruction of the Trocadero palace took place in total disorder. As always with Parisian expositions, the work proceeded slowly, and the exposition opening time was pushed back again and again. Jacques Gréber, supervising architect of the Exposition Internationale, expressed his dismay at the lack of foresight in choosing the exposition site and permanent structures: If the exposition had been decided upon five or six years before the opening, I certainly would have recommended a site that extended beyond the confines of the city – more precisely, a site to house a great Park of the Future, with several permanent public buildings useful to the development of greater Paris.3, When the American correspondent for the Architectural Record surveyed the exposition, he could compliment the "cheerful magnificence of conception, peculiarly French," while at the same time lamenting that the overall objectives of the exposition were "foiled by a lack of coordination between the idea and the realization. "4 Jean Loisy, writing in L’insurgé, sneered that "the exposition has neither a leader nor a plan nor a program. The 8m x 12 m work towered over the two-storey height space that occupied the top of the pavilion's tower, making it the centre piece of the pavilion's decorative and propaganda program. "14 Both Carlu and Azéma had been winners of the traditionally prestigious Prix de Rome in architecture, and could be counted on the design a building not too far out of the mainstream. Both the right and the left wings of political life in the 1930s conspired to confine art and science to these subservient roles. A Exposición Internacional de París de 1937, baixo o lema Exposición Internacional das Artes e das Técnicas na vida moderna, foi a sexta celebrada nesta cidade desde que naceron en Londres, en 1851. World War One was scarcely two decades past. The mood of the 1937 exposition carried none of the buoyant optimism that prevailed in 1900. At night, lights shined through the opaque plastic, giving a wonderful sense of airiness to the whole. It attracted more than thirty-two million visitors. Here Pagano had the joy of working alongside five different artists and placing Italy's newest industrial material such as linoleum and Termolux (shatterproof plate glass) next to a sumptuous chandelier from Murano and amber marble. Though the attendance at the Art Deco fair was only a tenth of the number who visited the 1900 exposition universelle, France congratulated herself on having taken a decisive step in maintaining her leadership in cultural affairs. After having first decided to demolish the old structure, they opted instead for camouflage. The United States pavilion, a towering skyscraper designed by chief architect Paul Weiner, showcased the Roosevelt's New Deal.21 The Departments of Treasury, Commerce, Interior and Labor made the case that America was successfully combating the Depression through an unprecedented series of public works funded by the federal government. Exotic People in Universal Exhibitions and World's Fairs (1851-1937), in: Human Zoos. The 1925 exposition, though not as ambitious as the five previous Parisian world's fairs, was pronounced a succès d'estime for France. Art is not the vessel of immortal truth, whose purpose is to "instruct by pleasing": it is a decorator of the useful. « I was then living in rue La Fontaine. 1937 – Dallas, Texas, USA – Greater Texas and Pan American Exposition (1937) 1937 – Düsseldorf, Tyskland – Reichsausstellung Schaffendes Volk (1937) 1937 – Miami, Florida, USA – Pan American Fair (1937) 1937 – Paris, Frankrig – Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne The ritual of Peace and Progress was over. "Paris 1937 Exposition" – special edition of Le Monde Illustré, May 29, 1937. inc. 22% sales tax. Upgrade to PRO. The Universal Exhibition of 1937, officially the International Exhibition of "Arts and Techniques Applied to Modern Life", which was held in Paris from May 25 to November 25, 1937, was the first Exhibition organized in France under the rules of the Convention of Paris of 1928 on International Exhibitions. The French pavilion will not be ready in time for the inauguration. Marcello Piacentini was given the job of designing the pavilion exterior. The visual aspect of these regional pavilions was an effect miniaturized grandeur: reductions of older styles meant for larger buildings. Bas reliefs showed airlines tying together Europe (with France leading the way), the Americans, Indochina and Africa. Apr 14, 2019 - Pierre Jahan, THE UNIVERSAL EXHIBITION OF 1937. Go to shop Search results prioritize 1 sponsor listings. As time went on, the objectives themselves wavered and shifted in the political storms. "The Paris Exposition: Some of the Lighting Effects," Electrician, June 25, 1937. Both the Grand Palais and the Chaillot Palace were conceived as permanent art museums – legacies of their respective eras to the city of Paris for the glory of France. In the domain of ideas, the 1937 exposition attempted to reconcile, symbolically, art and industry. It was with the architecture of the pavilions and buildings specially built for the exhibition that France demonstrated his technique. ", "Well," replied the director,"I can't tell you exactly. Guards in every pavilion were posted to stop visitors from photographing the exhibits. From the ceiling, gigantic aluminum rings, reminiscent of the rings of Saturn or the paths of electrons, encircled a Pontex 63 fighter plane in the display designed by "artist-decorators" Robert and Sonia Delauny. 12.900 Aussteller nahmen an der Ausstellung teil, davon stammten 66 Prozent aus Spanien. Though the decorative arts would not be the major focus of the new exposition, the exposition planners believed that the arts themselves should take an active part in the "struggle against unemployment." But it was a by-product, and not part of the official plan. It also 'repurposed' an existing artwork: Mario Sironi's Corporative Italy (Fascist Work) mosaic from the 1936 Triennale that had now been completed with numerous figures engaged in different types of work and the figure of the imperial Roman eagle flying in from the right hand side. In a spirit of cooperation, even the Ile de France – the province that includes Paris – participated with a structure that resembled the top part of one tower in the City Hall of Paris. From the political vantage point, the fair was a vehicle of nationalistic propaganda. The Palais de Chaillot is perhaps the best known monument. Even apparently public displays were to be appreciated, not studied. The Trocadero was the major legacy from the first exposition launched by the Third Republic. No one came away from the Columbian exposition with the notion that the other states were provinces of Chicago. There was fine art to be seen at the exposition, of course – in the retrospective gallery. But in other respects, the Chaillot Palace continues a tradition begun in 1900 with the construction of the Grand Palais. In all the previous events, increased business was recognized as an economic by-product of staging an exposition. Dioramas of paintings and mural-sized photographs showed the history of aviation. Artists gratefully accepted this public support; and some of the most renowned French artists of the period – painters Robert and Sonia Delauny, Albert Gleizes, sculptors Henri Bouchard and Alfred Janniot– staved off starvation with government commissions. After all, why mention them, unless one also mentioned the designers of cowcatchers or pull-down compartment beds? But the overall presence of art at the 1937 exposition was as decoration. Today, many buildings of the 1937 Exhibition are still standing in Paris. , Fitting in the architectural master-plan of the master architect Jacques Gréber at the foot of the Eiffel Tower, and inspired by the shape of a grain elevator, the Canadian pavilion included Joseph-Émile Brunet's 28-foot sculpture of a buffalo (1937). Hitchcock, H.R., Jr. "Paris 1937: Foreign Pavilions," Architectural Forum, September, 1937. In spite of the obvious differences in style, there are some striking parallels between the two buildings. But Chicago does not signify to America what Paris signifies to France. The misshapen conglomeration from the 19th century would be replaced by a triumph of art deco modernity, a perfect unity of artisanship and technology. Between the pylons, and all across the front of the building was a semi-abstract mural showing a rail car passing though a forest of loops and tracks.The official book of the exposition, Le Livre d'Or, significantly makes no mention of the names of the artists who painted the murals. The idea was transferred to Paris, where the "Provinces" seemed to the French as the equivalent of states. Culture, Capital and Representation. Application to daily life is the highest measure of worth. In the shadow of the Eiffel Tower, the two opponents faced off with self-aggrandizing monuments to their nationalistic spirits. The opening date was moved up to 1937, and a commission set to work in earnest on the grand schemes and finer details. From the outset, women participated not only as spectators, but also as artists, … This, as well as the fact that the two pavilions faced each other, turned the exhibition into a competition between the two great ideological rivals.